Establishing an successful cherry orchard requires the use of appropriate technology to make production profitable. Skillful plantation will lead to profit soon enough, with sufficient financial effort.
Fertilization of cherries in the garden tunnel
The most important in the cultivation of cherries is nitrogen fertilization, which is responsible for the most important process occurring in the tree. Growth, height and yield are dependent on the content of this element. Its excess, however, worsens the taste and durability of the fruit. Year to year, cherry trees should be given 80-120 kg N / ha, of which 35-40 kg / ha in early spring, and the rest during the season.
4 weeks prior to the growing season, trees should already have access to this ingredient. Every year, we enrich the soil with phosphorus 20-30 kg / ha, potassium 80-120 kg / ha and magnesium 30-50 kg / ha. A good method is to spread under the trees organic fertilizers and use fertigation (fertilization). Observation of their condition will allow you to see the growth rate, and what is related to it – whether the fruit trees are deficient in nutrients.
Crop under cover
Appropriately used fertilizer proportions will improve plant health, boost plant growth, and improve resistance to disease. Soil analysis in a laboratory will help identify the substrate content and subsequent adaptation to the crop under cover. Soil analysis is best done every 3 years during autumn and winter, while leaf testing every year during the growing season.
During flowering, cherry trees do not have leaves that could have contributed to the nutrition of trees. They are fed after harvesting and in autumn to receive the necessary items for storage. At that time, we give urea( up to 60 kg) for foliar growth in four phases of 15 kg, and zinc and boron. To improve natural strength of trees for stress, potassium phosphate is administered. From the bud phase to the fruit ,we spray cherries twice.
Up to three weeks after flowering, foliar feeding is done every 3 days. In the first, third and fifth week after flowering, urea, magnesium sulfate and manganese are supplied, and in the second and fourth amino acid products. During growth of the fruit, we regularly spray the trees.
Soil for cherries in foil tunnels
During spring, you should start the irrigation installation. This is a particularly important activity before flowering. The soil should have a humidity of 10-30 kPa and we keep this condition for fruit harvest. After harvest, humidity should be within the range of 50-80 kPa.
Flowering cherries in a garden greenhouse
During the flowering phase, we introduce 5 hives with bumblebee into the foil tunnel for 1 h. During the flowering, do not spray, a change in the smell of flowers discourage pollinating insects. It is also important to introduce pollinators to plantations, using gender alternately with neighboring trees.
Cutting, nourishing and constant access to water affect quality and size of the fruit, and flowers must be shaped to guide the buds the optimal way.
Protecting cherries in the greenhouse
The most difficult disease of fruit trees to fight are those resulting from bacterial origin. Bacterial illness is found in up to 8% of the orchards where stone fruits are grown. Their development and severity depend largely on gardeners and weather conditions. When leaves and fruits fall through open wounds, bacterial infections occur. To reduce the risk, proper precautions should be taken: healthy nursery stock, copper preparations and avoidance of tree wounds during vegetation. Regular treatments to prevent infections along with fungicide spray will increase fungal resistance and prevent emergence of resistant pathogens.
Every year, there is the possibility that outdoor cherry growing will encounter frost , which translates into damage to branches and lack of fertilization during fruiting. Even if the flowers survived, there is a massive decline in fruiting, and at the end of the season a much smaller yields. Garden tunnels protect fruit trees from low temperatures, making it impossible to reach critical levels at critical moments during growth of plants. Optimal conditions give the orchard quality production and better yields than field crops.
New orchards are created with high quality, heavily branched trees. After planting, we do not cut them, because it would slow down the growth and yielding process. In the first phase, the most important is to make sure leaves appear quickly. Equally important for the state of the tree is a deep and well-developed root system.
During the second and third year of growing, the shoots that grow vertically are bent to form wide open angles. This way, a crown is formed, which is beneficial for the fruiting period. With fast growing varieties , we leave those that form a wide arc and cut the rest.
Popular cherry varieties:
Early varieties with medium fruits, their size depends on yielding and conditions during early growth. The heart shaped fruit with a dark red glossy peel is a characteristic feature of this Hungarian variety.
A prolific tree, which in the initial stage of yielding is growing intensely, and weakens after entering full growth . Variety of Czech origin, dark red fruit with delicate flesh.
Strong growing variety with average frost and disease resistance. Regular yields, not very abundant .
Frost-resistant Hungarian variety, not susceptible to diseases. Gives big fruits. Very popular among the fruit growers.
Late variety, resistant to bacterial and fungal diseases, with moderate frost resistance. Dark red heart-shaped fruit ripening in mid-July.
Sensitive to viral diseases, but resistant to fungal diseases, German variety. Frost-resistant, giving large dark red fruit with a brown tinge. Harvest starts in the second half of July.
Late variety, moderately susceptible to frost, with large fruits appearing in the second half of July.
Late variety of Hungarian origin. Elongated fruit with red peel, susceptible to cracking.
In Poland, the varieties of Kordia and Regina are among the most popular. As common types , they require favorable weather conditions and suitable pollinating varieties. It is necessary to plant the right pollinator varieties to obtain fruiting.